Evil: The Book of Isaiah

It is our society that shapes and dictates standards of morality and how we should behave, creating prohibitions based on ethical definitions often aligned with its own best interests. What one nation or community could view as grossly immoral may by another’ standards be considered moral, i.e., female circumcision, thus moral and ethical behaviour is…

Moral Symbolism: The Book of Enoch

In 1077, Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV remained barefoot and on his knees in the snow for several days to express an act of penitence following his ex-communication by Pope Gregory VII, this symbolic gesture followed the power struggle between Church and State during the Investiture Controversy where appointed church officials had aligned their interests with…

Justice: The Book of Micah

He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the LORD require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God? The origins of human rights law in western legal tradition is said to have begun in 1215, when King John of England signed the Magna…

Syncretistic Religions of Turkey

Alevis are a community of heterodox Muslims culture-specific to Anatolia [Turkey]. Similar syncretistic religious groups exist in Syria (Alawi), Lebanon (Druze), Iran (Ahl-e Haqq), and in Iraq (Yazidi). The Alevis of Turkey are a unique religious association and have a close relationship with Bektaşi Order who originated from the Balkans. Although there are no exact…

Forgiveness: The Book of Jonah

It is incredibly difficult finding forgiveness that sometimes even the suggestion can be so unsettling it can arouse hate or anger and indeed those emotions can empower a victim, making it far easier to cope with the pain. When one is hurt, the value of their identity and humanity is taken away from them by the…

The Divine Comedy: Three Cycles of Self Discovery

I feel terribly low at the moment after my recent discovery that old wounds were not yet fully healed, that it is much harder to move forward when someone who mistreated and humiliated me is rewarded despite feeling no remorse. I have discovered, however, that this is not the first time I have felt this…